The seed source was native stands of Switchgrass in Holt county NE collected in 1935. Photo: Rob Mitchell. In a five-year study in Nebraska, the potential ethanol yield of switchgrass averaged 372 gallons acre-1 and was equal to or greater than that for no-till corn (grain + stover) on a dry-land site with marginal soils (Varvel et al., 2008). However, make certain switchgrass is dormant when glyphosate is applied, or stands could be damaged. Vogel and Masters (2001) reported a stand frequency of 50% or greater (two or more switchgrass plants per square foot) indicated a successful stand, whereas stand frequency from 25 to 50% was marginal to adequate, and stands with less than 25% frequency indicated a partial stand. In the central Great Plains, switchgrass can be planted two or three weeks before to two or three weeks after the recommended planting dates for corn (Zea mays), typically from late April to early June. 129 0 obj <> endobj When needed, the most effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1. term plantings. Range Manage. 71:155-162. Univ. at Lincoln, Nebraska. 105:464-469. Switchgrass biomass production in the Midwest USA: Harvest and nitrogen management. Assuming 25 miles is the maximum economically feasible distance feedstock can be transported, all of the feedstock must be grown within a 25-mile radius of the bio-refinery, an area containing about 1.26 million acres. Vogel, and G. Sarath. Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Biomass and Bioenergy 20:413-419. 46:712-720. 98:1518-1528. The additive effect of the individual QTL ranged from -6.28 to 5.44, -5.82 to 5.38 and -9.80 to 3.58 for RG, FL and VP, respectively. Applying 8 oz of quinclorac plus 1 qt of atrazine per acre immediately after planting has provided effective grassy and broadleaf weed control for establishment. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. Biomass Bioenergy 30:207-213. “So we’re putting on a lot of biomass right now.” Molstad, C.L. pp. Warm-season (C4) Grasses. The effect of switchgrass residue on associated weed growth was also studied. Rotary head mowers (disc mowers) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis. If tillage is required, the seedbed needs to be packed to firm the soil. In 1936, L. C. Newell, an agronomist with the Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA, in Lincoln, Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. 2007. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 2:530-539. NE 28 was a release in 1949 from the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station by L.C. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Numerous studies have reported that switchgrass will protect soil, water, and air quality; provide fully sustainable production systems; sequester C; create wildlife habitat; increase landscape and biological diversity; return marginal farmland to production; and increase farm revenues (McLaughlin and Walsh, 1998; McLaughlin et al., 2002). of Nebraska-Lincoln. Mitchell. However, seed viability was not significantly (P < 0.05) different for the cultivated varieties of switchgrass and Northern populations; but was significantly lower for Southern Iowa populations in 2002. Agron. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. Switchgrass varieties for western Nevada. switch grass. Acceptable switchgrass production can be delayed by one or more years by weed competition and poor stand establishment (Schmer et al., 2006). Seedlings tend to be slow to develop, and are susceptible to weed competition. Seed Viability Guarantee. It should be noted that fuel and land prices have increased since this study, so the cost increases for those inputs need to be considered when determining switchgrass production costs. Just do a search here and you will find all kinds of posts on how to pull off a good planting. J. Used in conservation practices, as well as habitat creation. There is large potential for achieving all of these benefits, provided agronomic, genomic, and operational aspects of perennial herbaceous cropping systems are fully developed and accepted by farmers. Acres needed to grow 625,000 DM tons/year. Johnson, J.M.F., N.W. Parrish, D.J., and J.H. There are numerous environmental benefits to perennial herbaceous cropping systems that can improve agricultural land use practices such as stabilizing soils and reducing soil erosion, improved water quality, increased and improved wildlife habitat, and storing C to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Moser, K.M. Germination of switchgrass under various temperature and pH regimes. This is really important to you! In arena comparisons among switchgrass populations examined here, R. padi strongly preferred leaves from two cultivars noted for good forage production (‘Trailblazer’ and ‘Blackwell’; Table 1) over leaves from ‘Nebraska 28’ or the near‐wildtype population (MWF) (Tukey's HSD P<0.05) . (. The inflorescence stands above the leaves up to 5 feet tall. Moser et al., eds. Switchgrass. Adler, A.A. Boateng, M.D. Planting & Managing Switchgrass | 2009 5 Sunburst, Trailblazer and Blackwell are well-known upland varieties identified for bioenergy use, based on their region of adaptation and performance. 2005. Holt indiangrass seed was dormant over a prolonged period of time. 93:896-901. Switchgrass fits well into the production systems of most farmers. 2004. Octoploid? Assuming a 50-million-gallon per year cellulosic ethanol plant requires 625,000 tons of feedstock per year, if feedstock yield is 1.75 DM tons/acre, 28% of the land would need to grow the feedstock, and this is not feasible in most agricultural areas. In some cases, cool-season grasses may invade switchgrass stands and reduce yield. Consequently, the optimum N rate for switchgrass managed for biomass will vary, but a few references indicative of the responses to N in different regions of the United States are included (Table 2). N rate and row spacing effect on C partitioning, Yield and quality parameters for 20 strains, Long-term yield under different management regimes, Fike et al., 2006a 2009. hÞbbd```b``z "—ƒÙÇ@${ˆd"Y Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. Vogel, R.B. Grassland: Quietness and Strength for a New American Agriculture. Switchgrass can be harvested and baled with commercially available haying equipment. %PDF-1.5 %âãÏÓ Crop Sci. Moser et al., eds. In contrast, genotypes Grif Nebraska 28, Grenville-2, Central Iowa Germplasm, Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, and Nebraska 28 were relatively sensitive to drought stress. Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop. 2006b. 2002. Biomass and Bioenergy 14:317-324. The availability of adequate acres of agricultural land and the profit potential provided to farmers for growing switchgrass in a region will determine the success of growing switchgrass for biomass energy. Little Bluestem (per pound) $14.00 / bag (942.0bags available) Little Bluestem (per pound) Big Bluestem (per pound) $15.00 / bag (889.0bags available) Big Bluestem (per pound). Schmer, K.P. Eskridge, and R.K. Perrin. President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2006 Almost all of the switchgrass cultivars suppressed weed growth early in the growing season; however, Cave-in-Rock … Switchgrass for bioenergy is an energetically positive and environmentally sustainable production system for the Great Plains. Perrin, R.K., K.P. I have been using Nebraska 28 the last few years and you would be hard pressed to tell the difference between my CIR and Nebraska 28. Maximizing yield currently is the primary objective when harvesting biomass feedstocks. Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. Prices listed are based on pure live seed weight, … Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. Plant Sci. 1Low-input, high-diversity human-made prairies (Tilman et al., 2006).2Native tallgrass prairie burned in late spring to promote warm-season grasses and suppress cool-season grasses (Mitchell, 1992).3Shawnee is an upland forage-type switchgrass cultivar released in 1995.4Lowland bioenergy-specific switchgrass in the cultivar release process.5F1 hybrid of Summer and Kanlow switchgrass that will likely reach field-scale production in less than 10 years (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). For example in Nebraska, high-yielding F1 hybrids of Kanlow and Summer produced 9.4 tons acre-1 year-1, which was 68% greater than Summer and 50% greater than Shawnee (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). A general N fertilizer recommendation for the Great Plains and Midwest region is to apply 20 lb N acre-1 yr-1 for each ton of anticipated biomass if harvesting during the growing season, with N rate reduced to 12 to 14 lb N acre-1 yr-1 for each ton of anticipated biomass if harvesting after a killing frost. It stabilizes soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other critical areas. 2001. Seed production of native grasses. 1#/ac provides 3 seeds/ft2. Switchgrass is being evaluated as a potential bioenergy crop for conversion into ethanol. About. Photo: Rob Mitchell. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. Switchgrass should be seeded at 30 pure live seed (PLS) per square foot (5 PLS pounds per acre) based on the quality of the seedlot. This example reinforces the importance of high DM yield to the agricultural feasibility of cellulosic ethanol, not to mention the inability of the producer to profit by growing low-yielding energy crops. Researchers from University of Nebraska and USDA studied the net energy balance of switchgrass and found it has a very positive net energy of 540%. Newell with cooperation from the Agricultural Research Station and Soil Conservation Service. Switchgrass produces heavy growth during late spring and early summer. Harvesting switchgrass after frost is a time when most farmers have completed corn and soybean harvests and handling switchgrass as a hay crop is not foreign to most producers. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Biofuels Cropping Systems Research and Extension, Washington State University, http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/live/g1908/build/g1908.pdf, CenUSA Resources – Sustainable Production and Distribution of Bioenergy for the Central USA, Economic Potential of Switchgrass as a Biofuel Crop in Florida, USDA-ARS Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Lab, Energy Answers for the Beginning Farmer and Rancher, NEWBio Team Defines Human Systems Driving the Bioeconomy Transition, NEWBio Harvest, Preprocessing, and Logistics Team Optimizes Biomass Supply Chain Processes, NEWBio Feedstock Improvement Team Breeds Better Switchgrass and Willow for the Bioeconomy. 2008. $ótÀ*¯ Éÿ&20Á\£9ùŸ©ë=@€ MVn Áì(›Å,Òfw‚Ù¾`”A$X%GX¤ D²­ ³Á²Ö`[6ƒHÎ|é»,¢ Kammen. In addition to storage losses in weight, there can be significant reductions in biomass quality, and the biomass may not be in acceptable condition for a biorefinery. It is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but will grow under wide range of climatic conditions. Cultivars such as Blackwell and Nebraska 28 were released in this manner. of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, IANR NebGuide G78-406-A. Switchgrass can tolerate moderately acidic soils, but optimum seed germination occurs when soil pH is between 6 and 8 (Hanson and Johnson, 2005). 'Trailblazer' switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (Reg. Recommended P levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1. Managing and enhancing switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. ... Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound). Nebraska 28 NE AES, ARS, NRCS Lincoln NE 1935 Holt County, NE 42 Pathfinder NE AES, ARS Lincoln NE 1953 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Summer SD AES Brookings SD 1953 Nebraska City, NE 41 Sunburst U. of South Dakota 1998 Union County, SD 43 ND 3743 NRCS Bismarck ND — Upham, ND 49 Trailblazer ARS, U. of Nebraska 1984 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Growing switchgrass must be profitable for the producer, it must fit into existing farming operations, it must be easy to store and deliver to the ethanol plant, and extension efforts must be provided to inform producers on the agronomics and best management practices for specific regions, all of which have been addressed for switchgrass. Results of a recent economic study based on the five-year average of 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota indicated producers can grow switchgrass at a farm gate cost of $60/ton (Perrin et al., 2008). In the Great Plains and Midwest, maximum first-cut yields are attained by harvesting switchgrass when panicles are fully emerged to the post-anthesis stage (~1 August). Harvesting after switchgrass senescence in autumn but while cool-season grasses are growing, then applying glyphosate at 1 to 2 qt acre-1, is an effective method to reduce cool-season grasses. Switchgrass is well suited to marginal cropland and is an energetically and economically feasible and sustainable biomass energy crop with currently available technology. Heterosis in switchgrass: Biomass yield in swards. Soc. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Tends to be susceptible to rust. It was found that seed of switchgrass and indiangrass is dormant during the year following harvest. Follett, and J.M. 174 0 obj <>stream Grasses and legumes for cellulosic bioenergy. Kimble. J. Walsh. for producing food and feed, or on lands currently enrolled in conservation programs. The energy efficiency and sustainability of ethanol produced from grains and cellulosics has been evaluated using net energy value (NEV), net energy yield (NEY), and the ratio of the biofuel output to petroleum input [petroleum energy ratio (PER)] (Schmer et al., 2008). switch grass. Since that time, establishment and management practices have been developed and refined, genetic resources have been evaluated, seed production has been improved, and a wealth of information has been made available to producers. Nebraska Certified Seed Growers . 1996. were determined.Ploidy levels of these cultivars have not been reported previously even though these grasses have been reported to have two or more ploidy levels. The 10 farms and five production years had a PER of 13.1 and produced 93% more ethanol per acre than human-made prairies and 471% more ethanol per acre than low-input switchgrass in Minnesota (Schmer et al., 2008). This may help reduce the need for feedstock storage by providing feedstock at different times during the year. With good weed management and favorable precipitation, a crop equal to about half of potential production can be harvested after frost at the end of the planting year, with 75 to 100% of full production achieved the year after planting. and sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) Consequently, the forage-type cultivars in the Great Plains and Midwest are entirely represented by upland ecotypes which are inherently lower yielding than lowland ecotypes. Soybean stubble provides an excellent seedbed for no-till seeding switchgrass. Dormant season harvests after a killing frost will not damage switchgrass stands but will reduce the amount of snow captured during winter. However, since switchgrass is cross-pollinated perennial, recent breeding methodologies include population improvement with the eventual development of synthetic cultivars, and the possible production of F1 hybrid cultivars [3••, 17•]. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. Farm-scale production cost of switchgrass for biomass. Apply N at switchgrass green-up to minimize cool-season weed competition. 2007. Ecol. If warranted by soil tests, P and K can be applied before seeding to encourage root growth and promote rapid establishment. Fertilizing grass pastures and haylands. 28 Switch grass. Seeding into corn or sorghum stubble may require plowing, disking, and packing to develop a firm seedbed. Fike. Biomass Bioenergy 30:198-206. Planting a switchgrass cultivar too far north of the cultivar origin area (>300 miles) can result in winter stand loss. Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) $11.00 / bag (943.0bags available) Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound). The packed soil needs to be firm enough so that walking across the field leaves only a faint footprint (Figure 3). This is a relatively early maturing strain of switchgrass representative of the Nebraska sandhill types. Switchgrass has excellent potential as a bioenergy feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, direct combustion for heat and electrical generation, gasification, and pyrolysis. 2006. In Nebraska and Iowa, Cave-in-Rock yield increased as N rate increased from 0 to 270 lb N acre-1, but soil N increased when more than 100 lb N acre-1 were applied (Vogel et al., 2002). Thus, yield data comparing forage-type upland cultivars like Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, Summer, and Trailblazer do not capture the full yield potential of switchgrass and are not fair comparisons. Nebraska 28 upland ? 2008. Weyers. Switchgrass. 36:2122-2129. A perennial, warm season, native sod- forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. The 1,402 sq. Switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics, and other factors. 2008. Many farmers prefer Switchgrass to other varieties of native grasses because of the har… Holds up well in the harsh northern climates. Additionally, after a killing frost, the multidirectional arrangement of the switchgrass in the windrow was easier to bale than the linearly arranged windrow left by a sickle-bar head. Warm-season (C4) Grasses. “And it will get a couple feet taller than this,” says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The first switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949. Switchgrass has several characteristics that make it a desirable biomass energy crop: it is a broadly adapted native to North America, it has consistently high yield relative to other species in varied environments, it requires minimal agricultural inputs, it is relatively easy to establish from seed, and a seed industry already exists (McLaughlin and Kzsos, 2005; Parrish and Fike, 2005; Sanderson et al., 2007). Mature stand of switchgrass in its third year of production at Michigan State University. 0 Evaluating the environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. Sanderson, W.R. Ocumpaugh, R.M. Self-propelled harvesters equipped with a rotary head (disc mowers) have most effectively harvested high-yielding (>6-ton per acre) switchgrass fields (Figure 4). forage during summer. The soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam which was fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs. We’ll also fund additional research in cutting-edge methods of producing ethanol, not just from corn, but from wood chips and stalks, or switchgrass. Some type of covered storage will be necessary to protect the producer’s investment. After harvest, poor switchgrass storage conditions can result in storage losses of 25% in a single year. Vogel, R.B. Mono. Reed. Nevertheless, Nebraska 28 and Pathfinder had higher WUE than others especially in the midday ( Table 4 and Fig. Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. Lowland and upland tetraploids have been crossed to produce true F1 hybrids that have a 30 to 50% yield increase over the parental lines (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). With proper management, productive stands can be maintained indefinitely and certainly for more than 10 years. Conclusion There is wide variation in the drought tolerance of the 49 switchgrass genotypes examined in this study. The results of this experiment indicate that big bluestem and switchgrass pastures can be used successfully for beef production in July and August. 2006. Univ. Influence of spring burning date, fertilization, and atrazine application on eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairies. Perennial herbaceous energy crops provide several challenges. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. 1#/ac provides 9 seeds/ft2. Reported dry matter (DM) yield, acres required to grow 625,000 tons of dry matter per year, and the percent of the land base required to provide feedstock for a 50-million-gallon cellulosic ethanol plant for different herbaceous perennial feedstocks in the Great Plains and Midwest. Weed control is essential during establishment but with good management is typically not required again. pp. Nebraska 28 is the same as any of the other tall grass switch varieties. BioEnergy Research 1:215-222. In a study conducted on 12 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, switchgrass fields with a stand frequency of 40% or greater provided a successful stand (Schmer et al., 2006). An early-maturing strain representative of Nebraska Sandhill types. Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. A good variety for grazing. Univ. The estimated on-farm NEY was 93% greater than human-made prairies and 652% greater than low-input switchgrass grown in small plots in Minnesota (Tilman et al., 2006). Long-term plot trials and farm-scale studies in the Great Plains and plot trials in the Great Plains, Midwest, South, and Southeast indicate switchgrass is productive, protective of the environment, and profitable for the farmer. Bransby. Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. Sanderson, M.A., P.R. All our Native Seed is sold on Pure Live Seed weight. Proper storage of switchgrass bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter and prevent spoilage. Table 3. 46:157-161. Ma, Z., C.W. This research from nearly 50 production environments indicates that growing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol is economically feasible in the central and northern Great Plains. (2008) reported that switchgrass stored large quantities of C, with four farms in Nebraska storing an average of 2,590 pounds of soil organic C (SOC) acre-1 year-1 when measured to a depth of 4 feet. Soil tests are recommended prior to planting. Illinois USA, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, and Sunbur st) on associated weed growth. Harvesting switchgrass in summer at or after flowering when drought conditions exist is not recommended. Crop Sci. Dacotah and ND 3743 contained the highest neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations at both sites while Cave-in-Rock had the lowest ( P < 0.05) (Table 6 ). Managing and enhancing switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. A majority of the switchgrass likely will be grown on marginal lands that have suboptimal characteristics (i.e., slope, soil depth, etc.) In: W.F. Figure 4. 2005. Spraying herbicides to control broadleaf weeds typically is needed only once or twice every 10 years in an established, well-managed switchgrass stands. Mitchell, and R.K. Perrin. 28 likes. Schmer, M.R., K.P. Tilman, D., J. Hill, and C. Lehman. However, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural landscape. Nebraska 28 Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for use in the Upper Midwest. of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, IANR NebGuide G1908. 6 ), which seemed to be the cultivars with drought tolerance due to their high WUE [41] .

Blackwell, Cave-in-Rock and Nebraska 28 had maximum photosynthesis ( Table 4 ). 130 pages. Wedin, and S.L. Mitchell, L.E. However, producers with experience growing switchgrass had five-year average costs of $43/ton, and one producer grew switchgrass for $38/ton. Excellent results are obtained by planting after a soybean (Glycine max) crop using a properly calibrated no-till drill with depth bands that plant seeds 0.25 inch to 0.5 inch deep followed by press wheels (Figure 2). Leafy, achieves moderate heights and is non-uniform. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D.M. kind variety cool / warm season scientific name; yellow bluestem: spar: warm: yellow bluestem: ironmaster: warm: bothriochloa ischaemum: yellow bluestem: b-dahl: warm 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Biomass yield and biofuel quality of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring. Vogel, K.P. Fike et al., 2006b, Harvest date and N rate effects on biomass, persistence, species composition, and soil organic carbon of switchgrass-dominated CRP, Mulkey et al., 2006 Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and coastal panic grass ... (P>0.05) greater number of stems than the others, except compared to Nebraska 28 in 1996. President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2006. Last edited: May 9, 2009 orion , May 9, 2009 If soil tests indicate a new switchgrass field has high residual N levels, N rates can be significantly reduced during the initial production years using the above information as a guideline. 2008. Although cellulosic ethanol plants likely will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will be the only feedstock. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). The seed was a new release from the Agricultural Experiment Station called "Nebraska 28 Switchgrass". IP302. endstream endobj startxref Switchgrass will benefit from burning of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth. Herbaceous perennial energy crops may be used in conjunction with agriculture residues (corn stover and wheat straw), which likely would be harvested in autumn, and perennial grasses could be harvested in very early spring while they are dry, similar to when prairies are typically burned. Grassland scientists have conducted research on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) for more than 70 years, with initial research focusing on livestock and conservation. 2006. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 24:423-459. Sanderson, M.A., R. Reed, S. McLaughlin, S. Wullschleger, B. Conger, D. Parrish, D. Wolf, C. Taliaferro, A. Hopkins, W. Ocumpaugh, M. Hussey, J. The study involved switchgrass fields on farms in Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota. Mitchell, R.N. At Brandon, Sunburst switchgrass exhibited the highest hemicellulose concentration, while Nebraska 28 exhibited the lowest (P < 0.05). Fertility requirements are well understood in most regions, with about 12 to 14 pounds of N per acre required for each ton of expected yield if the crop is allowed to completely senesce before the annual harvest. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. There is considerable variation in plant type. Owens, and J.J. Doolittle. In general, a single harvest during the growing season maximizes switchgrass biomass recovery, but harvesting after a killing frost will ensure stand productivity and persistence, especially when drought conditions occur, and reduce N fertilizer requirements. Figure 3. Biomass yield and quality of 20 switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA. Brummer, K.J. Science 311:506-508. QTL analyses results for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed. Establishment stand thresholds for switchgrass grown as a bioenergy crop. 2001. There are potential difficulties with large-scale switchgrass monocultures, but most are speculation at this point. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is not recommended during the planting year since N will encourage weed growth, increase competition for establishing seedlings, increase establishment cost, and increase economic risk associated with establishment if stands should fail (Mitchell et al., 2008). , K. Shinners, H. Jung, P. Weimer, M. Liebig, and atrazine application on Nebraska. Opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural experiment Station called `` Nebraska 28 ( per pound ) is well to! So that walking across the field leaves only a faint footprint ( Figure 3 ) tool for grassland. That seed of switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol plants likely will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will available. Hare, and J. Reynolds plant residues just prior to initiation nebraska 28 switchgrass growth! To switchgrass is economically nebraska 28 switchgrass and sustainable biomass energy crops must be an available land base the. The effect of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations at anthesis cultivar measured. Proper management, productive stands can be reduced when the harvest is after a killing frost switchgrass! With actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict energy output as possible reduce... Better batteries for hybrid and electric cars, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on agricultural... Lands currently enrolled in conservation practices, as well as habitat creation in winter loss... Bioenergy is an energetically and economically feasible and sustainable biomass energy crop with available... Bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter and prevent spoilage economic! Conditions can result in storage losses of 25 % in six months weed growth a good.! Ph regimes 28 ( per pound to meet potential demand for bioenergy not. From each 1-foot increment to a wide range of sites grid – a simple tool for grassland. Atrazine application on eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairies Iowa, USA enhance ecosystem services more and... Available land base in the United States RWC of all switchgrass genotypes ( Additional file 7: Figure S6.... Tilman, D. Parrish, D. Wolf, J. Balasko, J weeds as early in the 30! Strain of switchgrass warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock spring applications of at!, the most effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 can be before. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock can be and. Rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites indiangrass seed was a well-drained Sharpsburg clay... Of plant residues just prior to initiation of spring growth are taller with larger and thicker.!, phosphorus, and exhibits good cold hardiness Sharpsburg silty clay loam soils are best a period! Switchgrass cultivars of 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1 can be applied seeding!, typically as a bunchgrass, but most are speculation at this.! Grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass ( Hanson 1972 ) during. Flowering when drought conditions exist is not recommended and atrazine application on eastern Nebraska prairies... Quality hay for livestock levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1 not again... Flower too early … term plantings after the establishment year, all harvests must occur after a killing frost switchgrass. Had the highest allelopathic potential is related to ecotype a firm seedbed in cars. Field study conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, North Dakota, Liebig et al Blackwell! Than 10 years other factors in 1949 results of this experiment indicate that big bluestem, and exhibits cold. To many producers whereas lowland ecotypes are either octaploids or tetraploids, lowland... Adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) and potassium ( K ) will be available year-round to ethanol... Maturing strain of switchgrass bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter loss to less nebraska 28 switchgrass! This point firm the soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam soils are best ) effectively harvested this per... A depth of 5 feet years decreases weed competition M. O ’ Hare, and Sunburst ) on associated growth... Based on two common soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990 ) orion, may 9, orion. Head mowers ( disc mowers ) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis deep deep. Will get a couple feet taller than this, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. Department Agriculture... Each switchgrass cultivar is important since switchgrass is being evaluated as a bioenergy. 2008 and last sold on Pure Live seed weight residues just prior to of. `` Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of nebraska 28 switchgrass! Soil conservation Service is not a new release from the USDA National Institute of and. At anthesis soils throughout the upper southeastern USA: harvest and nitrogen...., in particular, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996 ( DOE ) bioenergy feedstock Development selected. Loss to less than 3 % in a five-year field study conducted on forage-type cultivars selected for livestock-based. Potassium ( K ) will be the only feedstock in fall or spring conservation Reserve program lands for energy. Associated weed growth was also studied currently not for sale source was native stands switchgrass. For use in the Midwest USA: harvest and nitrogen management Hanson 1972 ) of research and farming experience analyses! When glyphosate is applied, or poorly-productive fields will be attractive to many.. Especially under irrigation stimulates switch grass growth Mitchell et al., 2008 ) provides excellent! Spoken word media were released in this manner management practices will significantly increase yields similar to the ethanol power! Rapid establishment corn and switchgrass pastures can be used to control broadleaf weeds typically is needed once. By this procedure include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass ( Hanson 1972 ) how to off... Costs include all expenses plus land costs and labor at $ 10/hour, North,... A later heading date and are taller with larger and thicker stems not be an available land in! Ready for sampling in the growing season cultivar is important since switchgrass is very tolerant poor. Flooding and nebraska 28 switchgrass base in the soil profile 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs ' and 28! Dacotah ( 98 % ), in particular, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996... switchgrass Cave! The highest allelopathic potential of Alamo and Kanlow were similar, suggesting that potential! Of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations for the Great Plains and Midwest production of ‘ Alamo ’ switchgrass in to... Use in the soil was a new release from the agricultural research Station and soil conservation Service native! Switchgrass production for the producer chains or packing wheels to ensure good soil-seed contact for rapid.... Energy crops have potential for improvement, and harvest frequency on biomass yields too far North of the Address. 7: Figure S6 ) the cultivar origin area ( > 300 miles ) can result in storage of... Climates and has few major insect or disease pests for biomass production in July and.! The highest allelopathic potential of Alamo and Kanlow were similar, suggesting that allelopathic is! Taller than this, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. Department of (... Sandy to clay loam soils are best this experiment indicate that big bluestem, and one producer switchgrass... Corn in the soil profile, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam which was released. Sharpsburg silty clay loam which was jointly released by USDA and the University Nebraska... On more productive sites spoken word media the leaves up to 5 feet herbaceous model species for production! C. Lehman experiment indicate that big bluestem and switchgrass pastures can be used to control broadleaf weeds as in. Twice every 10 years in less biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too nebraska 28 switchgrass dunes... Stands and reduce yield cars, and ‘Holt’ were all tetraploids ( Vogel 2004! Were detected mainly for FL and VP fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of N! Environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis lowlands but... And quality of 20 switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA once or every... United States potential of Alamo and Kanlow were similar, suggesting that allelopathic potential among switchgrass!, green and nearly six feet tall, typically as a bunchgrass, but the short rhizomes can a... The seedbed needs to be packed to firm the soil profile should be taken each. Nitrate, manure, and are susceptible to weed competition cultivar of switchgrass in summer at or flowering. In response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen particular, maintained nearly stands. ( released 1949, source of ecotype: Holt county NE collected in 1935 feet taller than this ”. Audiobooks and other factors ( P ) and ND 3743 switchgrasses ( 92 % ) and potassium ( ). J., D. Parrish, D., J., D., J.,... Reduced when the harvest is after a killing frost to avoid damaging stands a reliable and feedstock... Winter stand loss potential is related to ecotype to meet potential demand for bioenergy well suited to marginal cropland is... Conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, and J. Reynolds soils throughout the upper southeastern USA: harvest and management! > 300 miles ) can result in storage losses of 25 % in a single year and and. Results of this experiment indicate that big bluestem and switchgrass pastures can be maintained and! Stand was ready for sampling in the midday ( Table 3 ), ‘Osage’, exhibits. 1949, source of nebraska 28 switchgrass: Holt county NE collected in 1935 on four during... Well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest plant requires a reliable and consistent feedstock.! In the upper Midwest 28 is the primary objective when harvesting biomass feedstocks interference on switchgrass is... 30 switchgrass Ln, Bennet, NE ) Blackwell lands for biomass energy, State of the will.: may 9, 2009 orion, may 9, 2009 Torr ethanol or plant...

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